🖊 Google Associate Cloud Engineer notes

Personal notes used as a general recap before the Associate Cloud Engineer exam

🏅 Exam recently successfully passed

⭐ Important concepts are marked with a star
🔗 In most cases the original source is linked

The following are my personal notes, so I assume no responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions in the content
❓ found an error or have a question? write to me

🗂 Index


📕 Glossary

  • Multi-Tier Application
    • In software engineering, multitier architecture (often referred to as n-tier architecture) or multilayered architecture is a client–server architecture in which presentation, application processing and data management functions are physically separated. - wiki
  • Zone vs Regional
    • Regions are composed by zones (e.g. Region us-west1 is composed by zones us-west1-[a,b,c])- docs
    • All regions are at least 100 miles apart. - doc
  • db transactional**:** do all the jobs or nothing (have roolback)
  • OLAP vs OLTP - article
    • OLTP: OnLine Transaction Process (Database)
      • Purpose of an OLTP system is to handle data
    • OLAP: Online Analytical Processing (Data Warehouse)
      • Used for analysing the data
  • Gcloud
    • manage Google Cloud Platform resources and developer workflow - doc
  • Network address translation (NAT)
    • mapping an IP address space into another - wiki
    • used to map private IP (192.168.x.x) to external-public IP
    • how a NAT can manage multiple connections from devices inside the network, using the same external IP? (that is: how the NAT can forward the received packages?)
      • Each package have IP:port of the sender, NAT replace this with custom port linked with the internal device ip - reddit
  • Proxy
    • client directs the request to the proxy server, which evaluates the request and performs the required network transactions - wiki
      • “In computer networks, a proxy is a middleman you’ve assigned to send and receive messages for you.” - reddit
    • Proxy vs nat
      • “NAT works at the network layer while proxy at the application layer.” - huawei
        • NAT is transparent to various applications
        • proxy must resort to the IP address of the proxy server specified in application programs
  • Global resources - doc
    • GCP resources accessible by any resource in any zone within the same project.
    • ⭐ Some global resources:
      • Images: used by any instance or disk resource in the same project as the image
      • Snapshots
      • VPC network
      • Routes
  • Google Front End Service - doc
    • When a service wants to make itself available on the Internet, it can register itself with an infrastructure service called the Google Front End (GFE)

🔢 Gcloud Basics

# Init of the tool
gcloud init

# Gcloud structure
$ gcloud compute instances  list
# |------base--| |--who--| |-what-|

$ gcloud components install  kubectl # exception
# |------base-----| |-what-| |-who-|

# Set the project
gcloud config set project PROJECT-NAME

# Bucket Versioning (NB: is gsutil)
gsutil versioning set (on|off) gs://<bucket_name>...
gsutil versioning get gs://<bucket_name>...

# List VM
gcloud compute instances list [--zones] [--format json]

# Create VM with boot disk
gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
    --source-snapshot=BOOT_SNAPSHOT_NAME \
    --boot-disk-size=BOOT_DISK_SIZE \
    --boot-disk-type=BOOT_DISK_TYPE \
    --boot-disk-device-name=BOOT_DISK_NAME

# Install components (e.g. kubectl, minikube, kustomize, bq)
gcloud components list
gcloud components install PRODUCT

# Set a default Region
gcloud config set compute/region europe-west1

# Create Compute Engine persistent disks
gcloud compute disks create my-disk-1 my-disk-2 --zone=us-east1-a

# Resize a cluster nodes
gcloud container clusters resize sample-cluster --num-nodes=2

# Add IAM policy binding
gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding example-project-id-1  --member='user:test-user@gmail.com' --role='roles/editor'

# Delete `default` VPC (NB: start with 'compute')
gcloud compute networks delete defaulta

# Create VPC
gcloud compute networks create

# gcloud Wide Flags
--account         # GCP user account to use for invocation
--project         # The Google Cloud Platform project ID to use for this invocation
--billing-project # project that will be charged quota for operations performed
--configuration   # The configuration to use for this command invocation
--flags-file      # A YAML or JSON file that specifies a --flag:value dictionary
--flatten         # Use to "flatten" resources list
--format          # Set the format for printing command output resources
--log-http        # Log all HTTP server requests and responses to stderr
--trace-token     # Token used to route traces of service requests for investigation of issues
--verbosity
--quiet
--impersonate-service-account

# List VPC networks
gcloud compute networks list

# List existing clusters for running containers
gcloud container clusters list

# Describe cluster image info (NB: is gcloud not kubectl)
gcloud container images describe gcr.io/myproject/myimage:tag

🌐 Network

Virtual Private Clouds

  • A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network is a virtual version of a physical network, implemented inside of Google’s production network, using Andromeda.

    • Or: An on-demand configurable pool of shared resources allocated within a public cloud environment - wiki
  • VPC network consists of one or more useful IP range partitions called subnets

  • ⚠️ Networks and subnets are different resources in Google Cloud - doc

    • VPC networks do not have any IP address ranges associated with them
  • VPCs are global resources and subnets within that VPC are regional resources - wiki

    • VPC in auto-mode create one subnet for each region
    • CIDR range: smaller the number after the slash, the more addresses are available
  • Shared VPC

    • Allows an organization to connect resources from multiple projects to a common VPC - gcp
      • Each resource can communicate with each other using internal IPs from that network
    • ⭐ Usage: designate a project as a host project and attach other service projects to it
  • VPC Network peering

    • Used to connect two VPC regardless they belong to same project or same organization - doc
    • Key proprieties - doc
      • VPC Network Peering works with Compute Engine, GKE, and App Engine flexible environment.
        • ⭐ Note App engine standard is missing (flixible present)
  • Alias IP ranges

    • Used to assign multiple IP to a VM
      • useful if the resource host multiple services and you want to assign at each service a different IP (useful for GKE pods)
  • subnets

    • Each VPC network consists of one or more useful IP range partitions called subnets - doc
    • Each subnet is associated with a region
    • Show the default subnets:
      • gcloud compute networks subnets list --network default
  • ⭐ Number of available regions and zones

    • As of Q1 2020, Google Cloud Platform is available in 25 regions and 77 zones
  • Routes - doc

    • system-generated default route:
      • Priority of 1000 and target 0/0
      • path out of the VPC network, including the path to the internet
      • standard path for Private Google Access
  • Private Google Access - doc

  • A network must have at least one subnet before you can use it.

    • Could be created with:

      # Create the VPC network:
      gcloud compute networks create NETWORK \
          --subnet-mode=auto \ # auto or custom
          --bgp-routing-mode=DYNAMIC_ROUTING_MODE \ # global or regional
          --mtu=MTU # maximum transmission unit size
          
      # List VPC networks
      gcloud compute networks list
      
  • Projects can contain multiple VPC networks.

    • new projects start with a default network (an auto mode VPC network) that has one subnetwork (subnet) in each region.
  • Auto vs custom mode

    • Auto: one subnet from each region is automatically created within it
    • Custom: no subnets are automatically created
  • ⭐ How many VPC networks can we create? - the default is 5

    # You can list quotas using `describe`
    $ gcloud compute project-info describe | grep -B 3 -A 3 NETWORK
      metric: SNAPSHOTS
      usage: 0.0
    - limit: 5.0 # <-- [!]
      metric: NETWORKS
      usage: 1.0
    - limit: 100.0
      metric: FIREWALLS
    --
      metric: SSL_CERTIFICATES
      usage: 0.0
    - limit: 100.0
      metric: SUBNETWORKS
      usage: 27.0
    - limit: 10.0
      metric: TARGET_TCP_PROXIES
    

Quotas

Some number from doc

  • Maximum number of secondary IP ranges per subnet - 30
  • Maximum number of connections to a single VPC network - 25
  • Maximum number of VM instances - 15,000 per network

Cloud Interconnect

  • Cloud Interconnect extends your on-premises network to Google’s network through a highly available, low latency connection. - docs
  • Note: you can connect to GCP in three ways - docs
    • Cloud VPN
      • ⭐ Cloud VPN is under Hybrid Connectivity
        • During setup, you can specify the Google Compute Engine VPN gateway
    • Cloud Interconnect
    • Cloud Router
  • To access only Google Workspace or supported Google APIs:
    • Direct Peering
      • direct peering connection between your and Google’s edge network
    • Carrier Peering
      • sing a service provider to obtain enterprise-grade network services that connect your infrastructure to Google.
  • Other connections
    • CDN Interconnect
      • third-party Content Delivery Network (CDN) providers to establish direct peering links with Google’s edge network
  • Network tier
    • You can specify which network use for the connections - doc
      • After selected a default tier, you could always choose which use at deployment time
    • Two kind of tiers
      • Premium tier: use high performing G. networks
      • Standard tier: cheaper, use standard internet networks

Load balancer

  • Eli5 Load Balancer - serve the request to machines less busy

  • Allows you to put your resources behind a single IP address that is externally accessible or internal to your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network - gcp

  • Anycast = single destination IP address has multiple routing paths to two or more endpoint destinations - wiki

  • CLI

    # Create a forwarding rule to direct network traffic to a load balancer
    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create
    

Choose the Load Balancer

Based on docs

  • Internal Load Balancer

    distribute traffic to instances inside of Google Cloud
    choose based on Traffic type

    • Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing - docs
      • Regional
    • Internal TCP/UDP Load Balancing - docs
      • Regional
  • External Load Balancer

    distribute traffic coming from the internet to your VPC
    choose based on zone and traffic type
    if UDP traffic: use External TCP/UDP

    • External HTTP(S) - docs
      • Global
    • SSL Proxy - docs
      • Global
    • TCP Proxy - docs
      • Global
    • External Network TCP/UDP - docs
      • Regional
  • Note

    • Secure Sockets Layer
      • SSL operates directly on top of the transmission control protocol (TCP) - source - eli5
      • SSL can use TCP [1] to transport SSL records, and so SSL relies on TCP as a service - source
    • Health Check
      • Load Balancer can use health checking mechanisms - docs

Firewall

  • ⭐ Each VPC network implements a distributed virtual firewall- doc

  • let you allow or deny connections to or from your VM instances - docs

    • You must specify VPC and applies to incoming (ingress) or outgoing (egress) connection, not both
  • Every network has two implied firewall rules that permit outgoing connections and block incoming connections.

  • ⭐ Default rules: link

    • Allow connection between VM inside same network, and ICMP
  • ⭐ Always blocked traffic - doc

    • Egress traffic to TCP destination port 25 (SMTP)
      • “TCP port 25 is frequently blocked by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as an anti-spam technique since it’s used in MX spamming and abuse of open proxy/relay machines.” -web
    • Protocols other than TCP, UDP, ICMP, IPIP, AH, ESP, SCTP, and GRE to external IP addresses of Google Cloud resources
  • CLI

    # Create a Compute Engine firewall rule
    gcloud compute firewall-rules create [NAME] [--network=SUBNET_NAME] --destination-ranges[CIDR_RANGE] [--direction]
    

Cloud Armor

  • Help protect your applications and websites against denial of service and web attacks. - doc
  • DDoS protection, hybrid and multicloud support, IP-based and geo-based access, Adaptive protection (custom ML model trained)

🎒 Storage

Storage Types

Source from Google cloud

  • Block storage
  • Object storage
    • World-wide storage and retrieval of any amount of data at any time - docs
      • Link a key (e.g. URL) to the specific object and there is no hierarchy - reddit
    • G. product = GCS
  • Cache

GCP storage services

  • Cloud Datastore / firestore

    • Highly scalable NoSQL document database, transactional, terabytes+

    • ⭐ Firestore ****is the newest version of Datastore

    • Accelerate development of mobile, web, and IoT apps with direct connectivity to the database - doc

    • ⭐ Datastore use GQL language - doc

    • CLI

      # To export all kinds in the exampleNs namespace in the exampleProject project to the exampleBucket
      gcloud datastore export gs://exampleBucket --namespaces='exampleNs' --project='exampleProject'
      
  • Filestore - doc

    • Managed NFS Network File System (NFS) - docs
      • Allowing client computer to access files over a computer network much like local storage is accessed - wiki
    • ⭐ Filestore vs GCS
      • “(filestore) provide high-performance file storage capabilities to applications running on Compute Engine and Kubernetes Engine instances” - so
  • Memorystore - doc

    • Basically, managed redis service

    • Reduce latency with scalable, secure, and highly available in-memory service for Redis and Memcached.

      • 100% compatible with open source Redis and Memcached
    • ⭐ Max size: 300 GB - doc

    • CLI - doc

      # Create a Memorystore for Redis instance:
      gcloud redis instances create myinstance --size=2 --region=us-central1 \
          --redis-version=redis_5_0
      
  • BigTable

    • Scalable NoSQL database for large analytical and operational workloads.

    • low latency, no transactional, wide-column store, no SQL-like queries, expose Apache HBase API, petabytes+

    • Structure

      • instance - doc
        • container for up to 4 Bigtable clusters
        • Instances have one or more clusters, located in different zones
      • Clusters - doc
        • Bigtable service in a specific location
      • Nodes - doc
        • compute resources that Bigtable uses
        • Each cluster in an instance has 1 or more nodes
    • CLI - docs

      # Install the cbt tool
      gcloud components install cbt
          
      # Create an instance
      cbt createinstance <instance-id> <display-name> <cluster-id> <zone> <num-nodes> <storage-type>
          
      # Create a table
      cbt createtable <table-id> 
          
      # Count rows in a table
      cbt count <table-id>
      
  • Cloud Storage (gcs)

    • objects are immutable, object versioning**,** petabytes+

    • access types: Uniform (recommended), fine-grained (use deprecated ACL) - doc

    • GCS best practices - doc

    • Sharing and collaboration - doc

    • ⭐ Signed URLs

      • URL that provides limited permission and time to make a request - doc
        • “allowing users without credentials to perform specific actions on a resource”
      • Each signed URL is associated to a service account
      • The most common requests for signed URLs are object uploads and downloads
    • Storage classes - doc

      • Cold options:

        • Nearline Storage: read or modify on average once per month or less
        • Coldline Storage: read or modify at most once a quarter
        • Archive Storage: less than once a year
      • ⭐Change storage class

        • Note: is a rewriting process, you don’t change the “original” bucket class

        • ⭐ Note: use gsutil not gcloud

          • The gsutil command is used only for Cloud Storage. - so
          # Rewrites a source object to a destination object.
          gsutil -m rewrite -s coldline gs://your-bucket/**
                  
          # Create a bucket
          gsutil mb gs://BUCKET_NAME
          
    • Locations

      • Region: Lowest latency within a single region
      • Multi-regions: Highest availability across largest area
      • Dual-regions: High availability and low latency across 2 regions
      • ⭐ There is no one-step solution for moving objects from being regional to multi-regional - stack
    • ⭐Versioning

      • When use versioning, latest object version is called live version - doc
  • Cloud SQL

    • Relational SQL db, transaction, replica service, terabyte+

    • MySQL, PostgreSQL, and (ms) SQL Server

    • ⭐ CLI

      # Updates the settings of a Cloud SQL instance
      gcloud sql instances patch [NAME] [--backup-start-time] [--backup-location] 
          
      # Commands for working with backups of Cloud SQL instances
      gcloud sql backups [create/delete/describe/list/restore]
      
  • Cloud Spanner

    • Relational SQL db, horizontal scaling, petabytes+
  • BigQuery

    • Datalake for data warehousing (OLAP), analyze the data

    • CLI

      # Import data to bq
      bq load --autodetect --source_format=FORMAT DATASET.TABLE PATH_TO_SOURCE
      

🧠 Compute services

Compute engine (VM)

  • IaaS - VM on demand
  • IP address - doc
    • To locate the external (and internal) VM IP, you should use:
      gcloud compute instances list
    • VM, if allowed, can receive and external IP that is mapped to its internal
  • ⭐ Quotas - doc
    • You have two quotas: project and regional
      • Project:
        • Cap for a specific project, check with:
          gcloud compute project-info describe --project PROJECT_ID
      • Regional
        • VM quotas are managed at the regional level
          gcloud compute regions describe REGION
    • Note:
      “Quotas do not guarantee that resources are always available”
  • Storage:
    • Local SSDs - doc
      • Best performances: physically attached to the server that hosts your VM instance
      • 375 GB in size each
      • can attach 24 for 9 TB totals
  • shutdown scripts - doc
    • have a limited amount of time to finish running
      (Preemptible instances: 30s)
    • You can directly provide the script from Console using shutdown-script metadata key
  • Instance groups
    • collection of VM that you can manage as a single entity - doc
    • Two kinds
      • Managed instance groups (MIGs)
        • ⭐ multiple identical VMs, workloads scalable and highly available
        • create VM from instance template and optional Stateful configuration (e.g. disks)
        • Two types:
          • zonal MIG
            • deploys instances to a single zone
          • regional MIG
            • deploys instances to multiple zones across the same region
      • Unmanaged instance groups
        • can contain heterogeneous instances, you need to manage it
        • do not offer autoscaling, autohealing, rolling update support, multi-zone support
        • ⭐"Use unmanaged instance groups if you need to apply load balancing to groups of heterogeneous instances, or if you need to manage the instances yourself." - doc
  • Save money
    • Preemptible
      • ⭐ Preemptible instances can’t live migrate to a regular VM instance - doc
    • Committed use discounts
      • If some workload will be (almost) always required, you can commit some VM for 1 up to 3 years and receive a discount
  • Shielded VM - doc
    • ⭐verifiable integrity of your Compute Engine VM instances, prevent malware or rootkits
    • use of Secure Boot, virtual trusted platform module (vTPM)-enabled Measured Boot, and integrity monitoring.
  • Cloud Console
    • ⭐To restart a VM, you use a button named reset
    • You can order VM instances by Labels, status, zone, in use by, IP,
    • ⭐ You can filter VM instances by Labels, status, Member of managed instance group, IP, VM proprieties
  • GPU
    • ⭐ You must set your GPU instances to stop for host maintenance events - doc
  • Snapshot
    • ⭐ Compute Engine uses incremental snapshots so that each snapshot contains only the data that has changed since the previous snapshot. - doc
      • To make snapshot you should get the Compute Storage Admin role - doc
        • Permissions to create, modify, and delete disks, images, and snapshots.
  • Disks
    • The disks are regional, and you can enable regional replication
      • Regional: the disk will be replicated synchronously across two zones within a region
    • Use case: Copy a VM from a zone to another in the same region
      • gcloud to copy the the disk to the new zone, then create a new VM from that disk
      • More on this: Moving an instance between zones - doc

GKE - Google Kubernetes Engine

  • Run containerized application on managed environment
  • build on top of Compute engine
  • Regional cluster
    • You specify one cluster, and GCP replicate the settings on all the zones
    • Problem: pay resources multiplied per the number of zones available
  • Multi zone cluster
    • Can choose more than one zone of a region
      • You save money (e.g. can choose 2 zones instead of 3)
        • And you don’t need to maintain same nodes on both zones,
          in case of zone failure, this led to a potential
    • Problem: the master is only on the primary zone, and is alone. If the zone die, the master die
  • Auto provisioning - doc
    • GCP try to understand the resources required for a pod, and create on-demand a nodepool with enough resources to accomplish the pod
      • Adapt the nodepool on demand on pod requirements
  • Binary Authorization
    • Deploy only trusted containers on Google Kubernetes Engine.

Cloud Run

  • In a nutshell: you give Google’s Cloud Run a Docker container containing a webserver.
    Google will run this container and create an HTTP endpoint. - medium
  • ⭐ Could be easily confused with App engine (in particular with App engine flex)
    • here some reddit useful comments
      • “AppEngine can only be deployed to a single region.”
      • Cloud run allows you to deploy a service to every region within a single project making your API truly global, all within a single project.

App Engine

  • ⭐Basics:

    • One Application per project
    • Application can contain multiple Services:
      logical components that can securely share App Engine features and communicate
    • Each Service change create a new Version
    • Each Version run on a machine called Instance
      • Resident Instances:
        even when you’ve scaled to zero, these instances will still be alive. - medium
      • Dynamic instances:
        create instances with automatic scaling - doc
  • PaaS - Run code in the cloud without worry about the infrastructure

  • you tell Google how your app should be run.
    The App Engine will create and run a container from these instructions.

    • e.g. specify a app.yml with:

      runtime: nodejs12
      entrypoint: node build/server.js

  • Basic features

    • Can’t write on local disk, you can test the app locally, fit well with microservice architecture
    • ⭐ Only one App Engine per Project - doc
    • ⭐ Limits - doc
      • Maximum services per application: 5
      • Maximum versions per application: 5
      • Maximum instances per version with manual scaling: 20
  • environments - docs

    • Standard environment
      • code in specific version of specific languages, faster startup (sec)
    • Flexible environment
      • provide your docker, slower startup (min)
  • Locations

    • App Engine is regional, You cannot change an app’s region after you set it. - doc
  • Services

    • You can deploy multiple services on one App Engine inside a single project using the service
    • “An App Engine app is made up of a single application resource that consists of one or more services.” - doc
      • “Within each service, you deploy versions of that service”
    • Limits
      • Maximum services per app - Free App 5 - Paid App 105
      • Maximum versions per app - Free App 15 - Paid App 210
  • Usage

    # Create an App Engine application (Region required)
    gcloud app create
      
    # Deploy to App Engine
    gcloud app deploy [YAML]
      
    # Deploy but not use the new version
    gcloud app deploy [YAML] --no-promote
      
    # Sets the traffic split of versions across a service or a project.
    gcloud app services set-traffic [SERVICE] --split-by [cookie, ip, random] --splits [\proportion of traffic should go to each version\]
      
    # Migrate traffic to new service
    gcloud app services set-traffic [SERVICE] --migrate [\attempt to automatically migrate traffic from the previous version to the new version\]
    
    • If split with cookie, cookie name is GOOGAPPUID - doc
  • ⭐ Scaling - doc

    • Basic scaling**:**
      App Engine attempts to keep your cost low, even though that may result in higher latency as the volume of incoming requests increases
    • Automatic Scaling:
      each instance in your app has its own queue for incoming requests. Appengine automatically handle the increasing load
  • ⭐ Instance

    • The instance class determines the amount of memory and CPU available to each instance - doc (like VM instance type)
  • ⭐ HTTP url - doc

    • https://PROJECT_ID.REGION_ID.r.appspot.com
  • app.yaml - doc

    • You configure your App Engine app’s settings in the app.yaml file.
    • Some interesting yaml keys are:
      • api_version: Required
      • default_expiration: Sets a global default cache period for all static file handlers for an application
      • env_variables: define environment variables
      • includes: include other the configuration file
      • instance_class
      • libraries: - deprecated, use requirements.txt to specify Python lib
      • threadsafe: required, Configures your application to use concurrent requests
      • version: - better configure with CLI
      • automatic_scaling
        • [min/max]_instances
        • max_concurrent_requests: n^ of concurrent requests an automatic scaling instance can accept before the scheduler spawns a new instance (Default: 10, Maximum: 80).
        • max_idle_instances: maximum number of idle instances that App Engine should maintain for this version.
      • basic_scaling
        • max_instances: ⭐ Note min_instances value doesn’t exist!
        • idle_timeout: instance will be shut down this amount of time after receiving its last request

Cloud functions

  • Function as a Service - Completely serverless execution environment

  • use for (short) code that responds to events

  • Cloud Functions (CF) vs App engine (AE) - stackoverflow

    • CF limited to Node.js, Python, Go, Java, .NET Core, and Ruby.
    • CF designed for standalone pieces
    • CF pay per call, AE call per time
    • ⭐ Cloud function for simple isolated functions, otherwise app engine
  • ⭐ Settings

    • Runtime - doc
      • Triplet: Runtime (e.g. Python3.8), Base Image (e.g. Ubuntu), RuntimeID (e.g. python38)
    • Timeout - doc
      • Function execution time is limited by the timeout duration.
        Default 1m, max 9m.
    • Memory - doc
      • use the –memory flag
      • up to 4.096 MB, default 128MB
  • Upload the code - doc

    • Inline editor (Cloud Console inline editor)
    • ZIP upload (with this code structure)
      • ZIP from Cloud Storage:
    • Cloud Source repository
  • ⭐ CLI

    # Deploy a function
    gcloud functions deploy hello_get --runtime python38 --trigger-http --allow-unauthenticated
      
    # Triggers available
    --trigger-bucket # Every change in files in this bucket will trigger function execution.
    --trigger-http   # Function will be assigned an endpoint
    --trigger-topic  # Name of Pub/Sub topic
    --trigger-event  # Specifies which action (storage, firebase...) should trigger the function
    --trigger-resource # Specifies which resource from --trigger-event is being observed
      
    # Delete the function
    gcloud functions delete hello_get
    

Cloud endpoints

  • “Develop, deploy, protect, and monitor your APIs with Cloud Endpoints.” - doc
  • Cloud Endpoints Frameworks: web framework for the App Engine standard Python 2.7 and Java 8 runtime environments - doc
  • Control who has access to your API and validate every call with JSON Web Tokens and Google API keys
    • Integration with Auth0 and Firebase Authentication - for mobile apps
  • You need to choose the computing option - table
    • Obviously, we have cloud run on this list
  • Apigee
    • “Platform for developing and managing APIs”
    • Proxy to the real be for analytics, security, etc.

Cloud Tasks

Asynchronous task execution. - doc

  • [asynchronously] - execution, dispatch and delivery of a large number of distributed tasks
  • Your tasks can be executed on App Engine or any arbitrary HTTP endpoint
  • Is similar to Pub/Sub - doc
    • Both Cloud Tasks and Pub/Sub can be used to implement message passing and asynchronous integration
    • Core difference: implicit vs. explicit invocation
      • Pub/sub support impicit invocation:
        Publishers do not need to know anything about their subscribers
      • Cloud task explicit invocation:
        a publisher specifies an endpoint where each message is to be delivered.

☸️ GKE - Google Kubernetes Engine

  • Why Kubernetes?

    • YAML based, easy extensible, hybrid / multi cloud, microservices app
    • Resources
      • Why is Kubernetes getting so popular? - link
      • Why (and when) you should use Kubernetes - link
      • Do I Really Need Kubernetes? - link
      • “Let’s use Kubernetes!” Now you have 8 problems - link
        • “…don’t use k8s unless \you really need all that massive complexity…”
  • Why GKE?

    • Services managed by Google:
      • Monitoring
      • Networking
      • Some Security management tasks
  • Pod

    • can contain 1+ container(s)
  • Node

    • are the “real” VM with specific hardware
  • Master

    • Managed by Google, connected to nodes by a network peering
    • To reach the master (used to connect the kubetl command to a specific cluster) you need to pass the IAM
  • Workloads

    • ⭐ k8s deployments are reported under Workloads GKE page - doc
  • Anthos

    • “Anthos is basically GKE that can run on-premise.” - eli5
    • “provides a consistent development and operations experience for cloud and on-premises environments” - doc
    • Used for hybrid and multi cloud
  • Configurations

    • ReplicaSet
      • maintain a stable set of replica Pods running at any given time
    • Deployments
      • provides declarative updates for Pods and ReplicaSets. - doc
      • Deployments Vs ReplicaSet
        • “…we recommend using Deployments instead of directly using ReplicaSets…” - doc
      • Inside the deployment Yaml, you can specify the container type under spec.template.spec
        • ⭐A Deployment’s rollout is triggered if and only if the Deployment’s Pod template (that is, .spec.template) is changed - doc
    • Services
      • Types - doc
        • ⭐ ClusterIP
          Exposes the Service on a cluster-internal IP
        • LoadBalancer
          Exposes the Service externally using a cloud provider’s load balancer
  • time to live **(TTL)

    • mechanism to limit the lifetime of resource objects that have finished execution.
      TTL controller only handles Jobs for now - doc
  • CLI

    • The gcloud command is still in beta (may 2021) - so use beta on the CLI,
      e.g. gcloud beta container cluster create …
  • Zone / Region

    • ⭐ You can select at creation time Zonal or Regional Location type
      • With Zonal type, you can always specify multiple zones of the same region
  • ⭐ Install kubectl using gcloud

    $ gcloud components install  kubectl
    # |------base-----| |-what-| |-who-|
      
    # Note that usually gcloud have different format:
    $ gcloud compute instances  list
    # |------base--| |--who--| |-what-|
    
  • Private cluster

    • Makes your master inaccessible from the public internet

    • nodes do not have public IP addresses

    • ⭐ Nodes and masters communicate with each other using VPC peering.

    • Creation

      • you must specify a /28 CIDR range for the VMs that run the Kubernetes master components and you need to enable IP aliases
    • privateIPGoogleAccess

      • enables your cluster hosts, which have only private IP addresses (in private cluster), to communicate with Google APIs and services.
    • You can access to the master allowing your IP:

      $ gcloud container clusters update private-cluster \
          --enable-master-authorized-networks \
          --master-authorized-networks [MY_IP/32]
      
  • VPC-native cluster

    • A cluster that uses alias IP address ranges is called a VPC-native cluster. - doc
    • Other choiche:
      • A cluster that uses custom static routes in a VPC network is called a routes-based cluster.
  • Monitoring - doc

    • HW Metrics collected: CPU, Memory, Disk
  • Autoscaling - doc

    • You can enable autoscaling from console with Enable autoscaling checkbox
  • Good resource: kubernetes-basicLearning

🔐 IAM

“create and manage permissions for Google Cloud resources” - doc

  • defining who (identity) has what access (role) for which resource
    • gcloud projects get-iam-policy my-project
  • resource isn’t granted directly to the end user
    • permissions are grouped into roles, roles are granted to authenticated members
  • What is a member:
    • Google Account (for end users)
    • Service account
    • Google group - Google Workspace
    • Cloud Identity
      • Identity as a Service (IDaaS)
      • Used to work with other identity providers (e.g. Active Directory) - doc
  • What is a Policy
    • binds one or more members to a role - doc
  • several kinds of roles in IAM
    • Basic roles
      • Roles historically available in GCP: Owner, Editor, and Viewer.
      • Try to avoid those roles.
    • Predefined roles
      • give finer-grained access control than the basic roles
    • Custom roles
      • tailor permissions you made

Hierarchy

  • Google Cloud resources are organized hierarchically - doc
  • Organization > Folders > Projects > Resources
  • ⭐ You can set an IAM policy at any level in the resource hierarchy:
    Resources inherit the policies of all of their parent resources and overwrite or merge those policies - doc

🏭 Projects

  • To create a project, you must have the resourcemanager.projects.create permission - doc
    • Permission included into roles/resourcemanager.projectCreator
  • ⭐ By default, all users can create projects - doc
  • ⭐ The max number of projects you can create is a quota traded with google

💬 Stackdriver

Monitor, troubleshoot, and improve application performance on your Google Cloud environment.

  • Called also “Google Cloud’s operations suite”
  • To monitor the VMs, you need to install the stackdriver-agent
    • To do it, Google provide useful script
  • Which data are collected? depend of which agent is installed
    • Note: agents are for both Linux and Windows - doc
    • Ops Agent - doc
    • Logging agent - doc
      • based on fluentd

Quotas

From doc

  • (max) Size of a log entry - 256 KB
  • (max)Length of a log entry label value - 64 KB
  • Retention logs _Required - 400 days (Not configurable)
  • Retention logs _Default - 30 days (configurable)
  • Retention logs User-defined - 30 days (configurable)

🖱️ Cloud Source Repositories

  • store, manage, and track code - doc
  • Create new repo from CLI
    • gcloud source repos create hello-world
  • Clone a repo from CLI
    • gcloud source repos clone hello-world

💸 Billing

Pricing calculation

  • Main resource: Google Cloud Pricing Calculator - web
  • Total cost of ownership (TCO) - web
    • Get help from a googler to get an estimation
  • ⭐ BQ query price? - docs
    • Use bq with --dry_run to estimate the number of bytes read
    • Use the G. Pricing Calculator and enter the number of bytes that are processed

Billing monitor

  • Billing → Transactions page:
    • Show the GCP cost and payment history - doc

🏗️ Cloud Deployment Manager

Create and manage cloud resources with simple templates.

  • Like terraform, but for only GCP

    • “automates the creation and management of Google Cloud resources” - doc
  • ⭐ You start with a configuration: a YAML file that list the resources

    • Resources
      • A configuration describes all the resources you want for a single deployment.
        • a configuration is a file written in YAML
      • Each resource must contain three components
        • name - A user-defined string to identify this resource (my-vm)
        • type - The type of the resource being deployed (compute.v1.instance)
        • properties - The parameters (zone: asia-east1-a)
  • Outputs

    • expose key properties of your configurations or templates for other templates or users to consume

      • e.g. to get the IP of resources deployed
    • Code example:

      mongodb.jinja
      {% set MASTER = env["name"] + "-" + env["deployment"] + "-mongodb" %}
      resources:
      - name: {{ MASTER }}
        type: instance
        ...
      outputs: # <-- [!]
      - name: databaseIp
        value: $(ref.{{ MASTER }}.network[0].ip)  # Treated as a string during expansion
      - name: databasePort
        value: 88
      
  • You could specify dependencies to create a deployment timeline structure - doc

    • e.g. you need a subnet before create a VM inside it

    • Code for example:

      resources:
      - name: a-special-vm
        type: compute.v1.instances
        properties:
          ...
          
        metadata:
          dependsOn: # <-- [!]
          - persistent-disk-a
      

🛂 Identity-Aware Proxy

guard access to your applications and VMs - doc

  • Control access to your cloud-based and on-premises applications and VMs running on Google Cloud
  • ⭐ IAP lets you establish a central authorization layer for applications accessed by HTTPS, so you can use an application-level access control model instead of relying on network-level firewalls. - doc
  • Implement a zero-trust access model
  • Is a free services with some paid features

📋 Cloud Logging

store, search, analyze, monitor, and alert on logging data and events from Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services. - doc

  • Access Transparency
    • logs record the actions that Google personnel take when accessing customer content - doc
  • Cloud Audit Logs - doc
    • Admin Activity audit logs
      • log entries for API calls or other actions that modify the configuration or metadata of resources
      • e.g. create new VM
    • Data Access audit logs
      • API calls that read the configuration or metadata of resources
      • ⭐ Data Access audit logs– except for BigQuery Data Access audit logs– are disabled by default because audit logs can be quite large.
    • System Event audit logs
      • log entries for Google Cloud actions that modify the configuration of resources
      • ⭐ are generated by Google systems; they are not driven by direct user action.
    • Policy Denied audit logs
      • logs when a Google Cloud service denies access to a user or service account because of a security policy violation.
      • generated by default and your Cloud project is charged for the logs storage.

🖇️ Resources

  • ⭐ Google developer cheat sheet - github